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What is Meldonium?

23.11.2023
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What is Meldonium?
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Meldonium, with the IUPAC name 3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium) propionate, is a drug primarily used in the treatment of heart diseases and regulating energy metabolism. Mechanism of action, intracellular oxygen It works by improving transportation and making energy production more efficient. Due to these properties, it is thought to have performance-enhancing effects and is known to be used by athletes for doping purposes.

Medical Uses of Meldonium

Meldonium functions as a substance that helps transport fatty acids within cells and also reduces oxidized fatty acids. This medication is prescribed specifically for cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, and angina pectoris. It can also be used in the treatment of neurological disorders as it improves brain circulation and increases physical endurance. Meldonium shows its effect by improving the energy balance in the body and increasing the oxygen use of cells, which improves the general condition of patients, especially in cardiovascular diseases.

Pharmacological Properties of Meldonium

Meldonium is an antiischemic drug that acts on the nervous system, energy transport and metabolism. By optimizing the energy balance within the cell, it enables the muscles to work more efficiently and regulates the oxygen requirement of the heart muscle. This drug increases the energy production capacity of the cell by facilitating the use of oxygen within the cell. These properties explain the antianginal, antihypoxant and cardioprotective effects of meldonium.

Doping Effect of Meldonium

Meldonium is among the drugs on the doping list that can be used for performance enhancing purposes, especially by athletes. It has been included in the list of banned substances by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) since 2016. Its effect on athletes has been linked to increased energy levels, improved endurance and faster recovery processes. Due to these effects, its use has been detected especially among athletes competing in sports requiring endurance.

Athletes Affected by Meldonium

After Meldonium was banned, many athletes were identified as using this substance. One of the most well-known cases, world famous Rus tennis game Maria Sharapovais. Sharapova admitted to using meldonium at a press conference in 2016 and was banned from sports competitions for a while. This incident, which cast a shadow on his career, raised serious awareness about the place and controversies of meldonium in the sports world. However, many athletes other than Sharapova have been subject to criminal proceedings for the use of this substance.

Name Country Sports Where Conclusions
Maria Sharapova  Rusya Tennis 2016 Australian Open Banned for 26 years until January 2016, 2. It was reduced to 15 months.
Semion Elistratov  Rusya Short track Speed ​​Skating no intention
Pavel Kulizhnikov  Rusya Speed ​​Skating 2016 World Sprint Speed ​​Skating Championships no intention
Ekaterina Bobrov Rusya Figure skating 2016 European Figure Skating Championships no intention
Olga Abramova  Ukrayna Biathlon No fault – but results between 10 January 2016 and 3 February 2016 were declared invalid
Artem Tyshchenko  Ukrayna Biathlon
Abeba Aregawi  İsveç Athletics
Endeshaw Negesse  Ethiopia Athletics
Yulia Yefimova  Rusya Swimming Two out-of-competition tests – 15 and 24 February no intention
Nadezhda Kotlyarova Rusya Athletics Approved by RUSADA
Sergei Semenov Rusya Wrestle Approved by RUSADA
Evgeny Saleev Rusya Wrestle
Anastasia Chulkova Rusya Cycling Approved by RUSADA
Gabriela Petrova  Bulgaria Athletics February 6 2016 Suspension temporarily lifted
Pavel Kulikov Rusya Skeleton Suspension temporarily lifted
Andrey Rybakou  Belarus Weight lifting
Nikolai Kuksenkov Rusya Artistic Gymnastics
Elena Mirela Lavric  Romania Athletics 2016 IAAF World Indoor Championships
Denis Yartsev Rusya Judo
Mikhail Pulyaev Rusya Judo
Natalya Kondratieva Rusya Judo
Igor Mikhalkin Rusya Boxing (professional) March 12, 2016 2 year ban
Ruth Kasirye  Norveç Weight lifting Non-competition routine tests – 25 January 2016 Postponed until July 21, 2018
Eva Tofalvi  Romania Biathlon
Anastasia Mokhnyuk  Ukrayna Athletics
Islam Makhachev Rusya MMA Routine out-of-competition tests Temporary suspension lifted after 75 days
Davit Chakvetadze Rusya Wrestle Approved by RUSADA
Armantas Vitkauskas  Litvanya Soccer
Martynas Dapkus  Litvanya Soccer
Andrii Kviatkovskyi  Ukrainea Wrestle Temporarily suspended
Alen Zasyeyev  Ukrayna Wrestle Temporarily suspended
Oksana Herhel  Ukrayna Wrestle Temporarily suspended
Varvara Lepchenko  America United states Tennis no intention
Antonina Skorobogatchenko Rusya Handball
Maria Dudina Rusya Handball
Maxwell Holt  America BIRLESIK Devletleri Volleyball
Tamerlan Tagziev  Canada Wrestle 4 year ban
Daniel Omielańczuk  Polonya MMA no intention
Alexander Krushelnitsky Rusya Bending 2018 Winter Olympics 4-year ban; Bronze medal in Mixed Doubles was taken back
Ray Walker  Irlanda gaelic football 4 year ban
Oleksandr Senkevych  Ukrayna canoe speed 2019 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships 4 year ban
Aybol Abiken  Kazakhstan Soccer 3 year ban
Ahmed Abdelwahed  Italy Athletics
Svetlana Veselova Rusya CrossFit 2023 NOBULL CrossFit Games on August 3, 2023 4 year sanction

Meldonium is a drug that particularly contributes to energy metabolism and is used in the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases. In addition to its pharmacological properties, it has entered the list of banned substances due to its performance-enhancing effect among athletes. Meldonium, which is banned worldwide for the health and performance of athletes, has become at the center of ethical and legal discussions, as well as its medical use.