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What is Carcinoma? Types, Symptoms and Treatment

16.08.2023
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What is Carcinoma? Types, Symptoms and Treatment
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CancerIt is a serious disease that occurs as a result of abnormal growth and proliferation of cells. Carcinoma, one of the types of cancer, is a type of cancer that originates from epithelial cells and can be seen in many different parts of the body. Read on to learn more about the types, symptoms, and treatments for carcinomas.

What is Carcinoma?

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that originates from the epithelial cells covering the outer surface of the body as well as the epithelial tissue covering the surface of internal organs. Epithelial cells are cells that provide protection by covering the outer surface of the skin, mucous membranes and internal organs. Carcinomas have a high chance of being diagnosed in their early stages because they usually grow and spread slowly.

Types of Carcinoma

Carcinomas are generally divided into two basic types:

  1. Ductal Carcinoma: This type originates from the milk ducts or glands. Ductal carcinoma, the most common type of breast cancer, can spread into the breast tissue.
  2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma: This type arises from squamous cells covering the surface of epithelial cells. Examples of squamous cell carcinoma include skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma), lung cancer, and cancer of the mouth and esophagus.

Carcinoma Symptoms

Symptoms of carcinomas may vary depending on the type and the area affected. However, in general, the following symptoms may be observed:

  • Wound non-healing or bleeding
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss
  • Constant cough or shortness of breath
  • Abnormal spots or skin lesions
  • Noticing a swelling or mass

Carcinoma Treatment

Treatment for carcinoma may vary depending on the stage and type of cancer and the patient's general health condition. Basic treatment methods are:

  1. Surgical: It is a surgery performed to remove a carcinoma tumor. It is generally an effective treatment option for early stage cancers.
  2. Radiotherapy: It is aimed to destroy cancer cells or control their growth by using high-energy rays.
  3. Chemotherapy: It is aimed to kill or prevent the growth of cancer cells in the body through drugs.
  4. Targeted Therapy: Drugs that target targets specific to carcinoma cells are used to treat them. This method may have the advantage of causing less damage to healthy cells.
  5. Immunotherapy: It is a treatment method that encourages the immune system to fight cancer. It may increase the immune response against carcinoma cells.

Carcinomas are types of cancer that arise from epithelial cells and can develop in different parts of the body. With early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, the effects of carcinomas can be controlled. To protect your own health, it is important not to neglect regular health checks and to minimize risk factors. By seeking expert medical advice, you can learn more about cancer risk and treatment options.